Table 1.

Association between clinicopathological features and IL-38 protein expression. ADC, adenocarcinoma; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.

IL-38 expression
Nstrong (n = 194, %)weak (n = 108, %)negative (n = 82, %)p-value
age, years0.393
 <6517134.037.045.0
 ≥6521366.063.055.0
gender0.521
 male18148.440.739.1
 female20351.659.360.9
T stage0.016*
 T163.25.53.0
 T22116.113.05.7
 T317346.942.529.1
 T418433.839.062.2
N stage0.005*
 N09367.748.140.7
 N115925.733.334.7
 N21326.618.624.6
M stage0.002*
 M026796.896.381.3
 M11173.23.718.7
AJCC stage0.001*
 I7317.711.07.2
 II11846.837.031.9
 III12532.248.042.0
 IV683.34.018.9
differentiation0.001*
 high8966.050.032.0
 moderate16727.436.041.0
 low1286.614.027.0
histological type0.487
 ADC26546.539.862.7
 SCC11953.560.237.3
smoking0.586
 never12357.661.546.7
 smoker26142.438.553.3
pleural and lymphatic invasion0.498
 positive25789.793.490.8
 negative12710.36.49.2
vascular invasion0.452
 yes27296.892.691.4
 no1123.27.48.6
  • *p < 0.05 indicates a significant association among the variables.