Table 1.

History of phenotypic plasticity.

DateScientist(s)Theory
1909Woltereckreaction norm
1913Johannsengenotype–phenotype distinction
1940–1950Waddington
Schmalhausen
canalization/assimilation
1965Bradshawgenetic basis of plasticity
1998–2003Schlichting/Pigliucci
West-Eberhard
facilitator hypothesis